Sex change surgery

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Sex change surgery

Sex change abroad can help to locate specialist centres overseas. Sex-change procedures, also referred to as transsexuality, sex reassignment surgery, gender-change or gender-reassignment surgery, sex affirmation surgery or gender confirmation surgery, are procedures by which an individual of one gender is surgically altered to resemble characteristics of the opposite sex. Namely, the physical appearance and function of their existing sexual characteristics are altered.

Surgery is not the only step in the sex-change process; patients must also undergo counselling sessions and hormone therapy to replace one's own natural hormones with those of the opposite sex. Hormone therapy helps to alter the secondary sexual characteristics not altered through surgery, including facial hair growth, larger muscles, deep voice and heavier skeleton in males, and breast development, more rounded body, higher voice and lack of facial hair in females.

The surgical aspect of the sex change process for males includes removal of the scrotum and testes and sometimes a vaginal construction, while for females it includes the removal of the ovaries, uterus, and vagina and in some cases the construction or attachment of a penis. Often breasts are also removed.

Common sex change surgery procedures

Sex-change surgery treatment categories include:

  • hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
  • gender reassignment
  • chest reconstruction surgery
  • feminising genitoplasty
  • masculinising genitoplast
  • transition counselling
  • permanent hair removal


For a full list of available destinations for sex change surgery, please refer to the search box to the right.

Useful links

Find more in-depth information on sex change surgery at:

The World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) -

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Page last updated: Monday, 23rd November 2009